The LNER 4-4-0 'American' Locomotives D1-D24
The 4-4-0 was introduced to Britain in the 1850s with outside cylinders. The inside cylinder form became the archetypical British express locomotive in the late 19th Century. When superseded by Atlantics or 4-6-0s the type was versatile enough to continue on secondary passenger duties in many areas.
At Grouping (1923), the LNER inherited 4-4-0s from all of its major constituents, a distinction shared only with the 0-6-0T. With 920 examples, it was the most numerous tender type after the 0-6-0, amounting to 12% of the total stock. The Great North of Scotland Railway (GNSR) was a particularly keen user, all 100 of its tender locos being 4-4-0s, including the only outside-cylinder variants acquired by the LNER in 1923. Another 45 4-4-0s of pre-Grouping ancestry were acquired from the Midland & Great Northern (M&GN) in 1936 . These included further outside-cylinder examples, although they were quickly withdrawn.
British Railways inherited 397 pre-Grouping 4-4-0s locomotives from the LNER. In addition to these, the LNER built 34 4-4-0s to existing designs and 76 three-cylinder D49s. All of these locomotives survived into British Railways ownership, although one of the three-cylinder locomotives had been rebuilt with two cylinders.
Due to the large number of 4-4-0s, this index has been split into two:
4-4-0 Tender Locomotives, D1 - D24
|Class||Builder||Designer||First Built||Last Withdrawal||Comments|
|D4||GNR||Ivatt||1897||1928||Rebuilt as D3|
|D13||GER||Holden||1905||1944||Rebuilt from GER T19 2-4-0s|
|D14||GER||Holden||1900||1931||Claud Hamilton Class ("Clauds")|